The Sailor’s Return, 1744
Note to the Readers: This is a two-page article. This is page two of two, featuring the third and fourth sections of the article. For sections one and two, which cover Anne Bonny and Mary Read, see PAGE ONE (Click Here).
Other Women Pirates and Female Interactions with Pirates
For the period of 1680 to 1740, Anne Bonny and Mary Read are almost the only examples of women who went onboard pirate ships and actively participated in piracy. The exception to the famous pair is a woman named Mary Critchett. In May of 1729, a group of six convicts, transported from England and sold in Virginia, ran away from their masters and banded together to steal a vessel. The crew managed to hijack a sloop, the John and Elizabeth, in the middle of the night of May 12, without any weapons. The group sailed the vessel out of the Piankatank River and into the Chesapeake Bay for several days, and eventually let the master of the sloop and his servant leave in a flat boat. There are no details of when or who caught the five men and Critchett. Since their trial showed the convicts had limited maritime skills, and the charges in court all concerned the John and Elizabeth, it appears someone caught them in the Chesapeake Bay before they could go to sea and attack other vessels. During this briefest of pirate careers, Critchett’s most significant actions as a pirate included sitting on a hatch to prevent their two prisoners from escaping and arguing against allowing the prisoners to leave since they would tell the authorities. The court found her guilty of piracy along with the rest of the crew. There are currently no known documents showing authorities carried out this execution. While Critchett’s piracy consisted of two minor acts on her part, and lasted a shorter amount of time than the already brief careers of Bonny and Read, it is the only other example of a woman pirate for this period. Continue reading
Ship’s Galley in a Thomas Phillip print of a first rate ship of the line from the 1690s. Note the ship’s cook with a knife in his right hand wearing an apron and possessing a wooden leg. Image printed in Brian Lavery’s “The Arming and Fitting of English Ships of War, 1600-1815” on page 196.
Prologue: Due to the amount of content on this subject, this article is broken into two parts. The second part will be published several weeks from now. Special thanks to Jeff Pavlik for his consultations regarding period ship’s biscuits.
UPDATE, 9-8-2018: Many people have asked if I will complete part 2 of this article. Since this is one of my most popular posts, I will respond. As of now, my main priority is to complete my maritime clothing book, so any work on maritime food will have to wait until that is completed. In addition, after doing work on this post, I realized that the subject is extremely large, and that if I wanted to pursue it further, I would probably want to publish it in some other format beyond a post on my website. This is also why I removed “Part 1” from the post title.
“Englishmen, and more especially seamen, love their bellies above anything else.” This classic quote from Samuel Pepys summarized well the significance of food to sailors during the Age of Sail. Mariners could endure hard work and ragged clothing, but had little patience for short rations or rotten provisions. Pepys recognized this when he work for the English Royal Navy, and that, “any abatement from them in the quantity or agreeableness of the victuals,” could turn sailors against serving the Navy. The stereotype for the diet of sailors during the Age of Sail included ship’s biscuit, salt pork, and rum. Many people at sea in that era ate or drank all the items in this cliché menu, but also consumed many other foods and drinks. Since food played a significant role in the lives of sailors, exploring the specifics of their diets can provide more insights into their experiences at sea.
Examining food for common-rank Anglo-America sailors in the various maritime services requires answering a variety of questions:
- What foods did sailors receive in their rations?
- How did the food issued in European waters differ from those in other places such as the Caribbean?
- Did Navy provisions differ from those of pirates, merchant sailors, or other maritime services?
- How did French, Spanish, or Dutch provisions differ from those on British vessels?
- What dishes did sea cooks prepare?
- When did mariners eat?
- What tableware and utensils did they use at mealtimes?
- What did sailors eat or drink onshore after a voyage?
- How did the sailors’ diet compare to that of the lower class ashore?
Attempting to answer these questions, specifically for sailors who sailed between 1680 and 1740, offers a glimpse into a somewhat neglected period of maritime history and provides context to future food choices for mariners in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. Continue reading